# what is braggs equation explain crystal system ?

## Bragg’s Equation

Bragg’s equation is a law in physics that describes the scattering of waves from a crystal lattice. The equation states that the angle of incidence, the angle of scattering, and the wavelength of the wave are related by the following equation:

nλ = 2d sin θ

where:

• n is an integer
• λ is the wavelength of the wave
• d is the distance between crystal planes
• θ is the angle of incidence

Bragg’s equation is used to determine the structure of crystals by X-ray diffraction. When X-rays are shone on a crystal, they are scattered by the atoms in the crystal lattice. The scattered X-rays interfere with each other, and the resulting pattern of interference can be used to determine the structure of the crystal.

## Crystal Systems

A crystal system is a way of classifying crystals based on their symmetry.

There are seven crystal systems:

• Cubic
• Tetragonal
• Orthorhombic
• Rhombohedral
• Hexagonal
• Monoclinic
• Triclinic

The crystal systems are distinguished by the angles between their crystal axes. The cubic crystal system has all angles equal to 90 degrees, the tetragonal crystal system has one angle equal to 90 degrees and the other two angles equal to 90 degrees, the orthorhombic crystal system has all angles equal to 90 degrees, the rhombohedral crystal system has all angles equal to 90 degrees and one angle equal to 120 degrees, the hexagonal crystal system has one angle equal to 90 degrees and two angles equal to 120 degrees, the monoclinic crystal system has one angle equal to 90 degrees and the other two angles unequal to 90 degrees, and the triclinic crystal system has all angles unequal to 90 degrees.

## Conclusion

Bragg’s equation and crystal systems are two important concepts in crystallography. Bragg’s equation is used to determine the structure of crystals by X-ray diffraction, and crystal systems are a way of classifying crystals based on their symmetry.